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They also harvested and processed nuts and wild berries. In their years of transition, the Osage had cultural practices that had elements of the cultures of both Woodland Native Americans and the Great Plains peoples.

The villages of the Osage were important hubs in the Great Plains trading network served by Kaw people as intermediaries. In French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet were among the first Europeans to encounter the Osage as they explored southward from present-day Canada in their expedition along the Mississippi River.

Marquette and Joliet claimed all land in the Mississippi Valley for France. Marquette's map noted that the Kanza , Osage, and Pawnee tribes controlled much of modern-day Kansas.

The first half of the s was a time of more interaction between the Osage and French. Jesuit missionaries were assigned to French forts and established missions to the Osage, learning their language.

In , the Osage allied with the French rather than the Spanish in their fight for control of the Mississippi region. In , Bourgmont led a delegation of Osage and other tribal chiefs to Paris.

They hunted with Louis XV in the royal forest and saw an opera. France made a separate deal with Spain , which took nominal control of much of the Illinois Country west of the great river.

Louis ; the city was part of territory under nominal Spanish control after the Seven Years' War but was dominated by French colonists.

They were the de facto European power in St. Louis and other settlements along the Mississippi, building their wealth on the fur trade. Louis, the Spanish regional government gave the Chouteaus a six-year monopoly on trade — The Chouteaus named the post Fort Carondelet after the Spanish governor.

The Osage were pleased to have a fur trading post nearby, as it gave them access to manufactured goods and increased their prestige among the tribes.

The Osage and Quapaw suffered extensive losses due to smallpox in Historians estimate up to 2, Osage died in the epidemic. Louis, most of whom were of French-Creole descent, born in North America.

Having lived with the Osage for many years and learned their language, Jean Pierre Chouteau traded with them and made his home at present-day Salina, Oklahoma , in the western part of their territory.

The Choctaw chief Pushmataha , based in Mississippi, made his early reputation in battles against the Osage tribe in the area of southern Arkansas and their borderlands.

In the early 19th century, some Cherokee, such as Sequoyah , voluntarily removed from the Southeast to the Arkansas River valley under pressure from European-American settlement in their traditional territory.

They clashed there with the Osage, who controlled this area. The Osage regarded the Cherokee as invaders. They began raiding Cherokee towns, stealing horses, carrying off captives usually women and children , and killing others, trying to drive out the Cherokee with a campaign of violence and fear.

The Cherokee were not effective in stopping the Osage raids, and worked to gain support from related tribes as well as whites.

The peoples confronted each other in the " Battle of Claremore Mound ," in which 38 Osage warriors were killed and were taken captive by the Cherokee and their allies.

It was intended to prevent armed confrontations between the Osage and other tribes. The US compelled the Osage to cede additional land to the federal government in the treaty referred to as Lovely's Purchase.

In , the Osage clashed with the Kiowa near the Wichita Mountains in modern-day south-central Oklahoma, in an incident known as the Cutthroat Gap Massacre.

The Osage cut off the heads of their victims and arranged them in rows of brass cooking buckets. Later, Kiowa warriors, allied with the Comanche , raided the Osage and others.

In , the Osage prohibited the Kickapoo from entering their Missouri reservation, pushing them back to ceded lands in Illinois. After the US acquired the Louisiana Territory in , the government became interested in relations with the various tribal nations of the territory.

President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the Lewis and Clark Expedition to survey the territory and report on its peoples, plants and animals, at the same time that it sought a route via the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean.

It encountered the Osage in their territory along the Osage River. The major part of the tribe moved to the Three-Forks region of what would become Oklahoma soon after the encounter with the Lewis and Clark Expedition, wanting to maintain distance from European Americans.

They were buffered for a period from interaction with the United States settlers and representatives. This part of the tribe did not participate in negotiations for the treaty of , but their assent was obtained in After the expedition was completed in , Jefferson appointed Meriwether Lewis as Indian Agent for the territory of Missouri and the region.

There were continuing confrontations between the Osage and other tribes in this area. Lewis anticipated that the US would have to go to war with the Osage, because of their raids on eastern Natives and European-American settlements.

However, the U. It decided to supply other tribes with weapons and ammunition, provided they attack the Osage to the point they "cut them off completely or drive them from their country.

For instance, in September , Lewis persuaded the Potawatomie and Sac and Fox to attack an Osage village; three Osage warriors were killed.

The Osage blamed the Americans for the attack. One of the Chouteau traders intervened, and persuaded the Osage to conduct a buffalo hunt rather than seek retaliation by attacking Americans.

Lewis tried to control the Osage also by separating the friendly members from the hostile. In a letter dated Aug. But the goal foremost pursued by the US was to push the Osage out of areas being settled by European Americans, who began to enter the Louisiana Territory after the US acquired it.

The lucrative fur trade stimulated the growth of St. Louis and attracted settlers there. The US and Osage signed their first treaty on November 10, , by which the Osage made a major cession of land in present-day Missouri.

It also established the requirement that the U. President had to approve all future land sales and cessions by the Osage. The Treaty of Ft.

Osage states the U. The Osage also occupied land in present-day Kansas and in Indian Territory. In the s the US government promised some of this land to the Cherokee and four other southeastern tribes under Indian Removal.

When the Cherokee arrived to find that the land was already occupied, many conflicts arose with the Osage over territory and resources.

Between the first treaty with the US and , the Osages ceded their traditional lands across Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma in the treaties of and In exchange they were to receive reservation lands and supplies to help them adapt to farming and a more settled culture.

They were first relocated to a southeast Kansas reservation called the Osage Diminished Reserve. The city of Independence later developed here.

They established the Union, Harmony, and Hopefield missions. The Osage were attracted to their sense of mystery and ritual, but felt the Catholics did not fully embrace the Osage sense of the spiritual incarnate in nature.

During this period in Kansas, the tribe suffered from the widespread smallpox pandemic of —, which caused devastating losses among Native Americans from Canada to New Mexico.

Most survivors of the epidemic had received vaccinations against the disease. Honoring this special relationship, as well as Catholic sisters who taught their children on reservations, in numerous Osage elders went to St.

Louis to celebrate the city's th anniversary of the European founding. They participated in a mass partially conducted in Osage at St.

Louis University on April 2, , as part of planned activities. In the Osage asked the federal government to send "Black Robes", Jesuit missionaries to educate their children; the Osage considered the Jesuits better able to work with their culture than the Protestant missionaries.

The Jesuits also established a girls' school operated by the Sisters of Loretto from Kentucky. They taught, established more than mission stations, built churches, and created the longest-running school system in Kansas.

White squatters continued to be a frequent problem for the Osage, but they recovered from population losses, regaining a total of 5, members by The Osage lands became overrun with European-American settlers.

In , the Osage suffered another epidemic of smallpox, because a generation had grown up without getting vaccinated. Subsequent US treaties and laws through the s further reduced the lands of the Osage in Kansas.

During the years of the Civil War, they were buffeted by both sides, as they were located between Union forts in the North, and Confederate forces and allies to the South.

While the Osage tried to stay neutral, both sides raided their territory, taking horses and food stores. During the war, many Caddoan and Creek refugees from Indian Territory came to Osage country in Kansas, which further strained their resources.

Although the Osage favored the Union by a five to one ratio, they made a treaty with the Confederacy to try to buy some peace. As a result, after the war, they were forced to make a new treaty with the US during Reconstruction.

They were forced to give up more territory in Kansas to European-American settlers. In , Lt. He knew the Osage for because of their scouting expertise, excellent terrain knowledge, and military prowess.

Custer and his soldiers took Chief Black Kettle and his peaceful band by surprise in the early morning near the Washita River on November 27, They killed Chief Black Kettle, and the ambush resulted in additional deaths on both sides.

This incident became known as the Battle of Washita River , or, better, as the Washita massacre, an ignominious part of the United States' Indian Wars.

It provided that the remainder of Osage land in Kansas be sold and the proceeds used to relocate the tribe to Indian Territory in the Cherokee Outlet.

By delaying agreement with removal, the Osage benefited by a change in administration. They sold their lands to the "peace" administration of President Ulysses S.

The Osage were one of the few American Indian nations to buy their own reservation. As a result, they retained more rights to the land and sovereignty.

The Osage established three towns: Pawhuska , Hominy and Fairfax. Each was dominated by one of the major bands at the time of removal.

The Osage continued their relationship with the Catholic Church, which established schools operated by two orders of nuns, as well as mission churches.

It was many years before the Osage recovered from the hardship suffered during their last years in Kansas and their early years on the reservation in Indian Territory.

For nearly five years during the depression of the s, the Osage did not receive their full annuity in cash. Like other Native Americans, they suffered from the government's failure to provide full or satisfactory rations and goods as part of their annuities during this period.

Middlemen made profits by shorting supplies to the Indians or giving them poor-quality food. Some people starved.

Many adjustments had to be made to their new way of life. During this time, Indian Office reports showed nearly a 50 percent decline in the Osage population.

The people suffered greatly during the winters. While the government failed to supply them, outlaws often smuggled whiskey to the Osage and the Pawnee.

In , an Osage delegation went to Washington, DC and gained agreement to have all their annuities paid in cash; they hoped to avoid being continually shortchanged in supplies, or by being given supplies of inferior quality - spoiled food and inappropriate goods.

They were the first Native American nation to gain full cash payment of annuities. They gradually began to build up their tribe again, but suffered encroachment by white outlaws, vagabonds, and thieves.

By the start of the 20th century, the federal government and progressives were continuing to press for Native American assimilation , believing this was the best policy for them.

Congress passed the Curtis Act and Dawes Act , legislation requiring the dismantling of other reservations. They allotted communal lands in acre portions to individual households, declaring the remainder as "surplus" and selling it to non-natives.

As the Osage owned their land, they were in a stronger position than other tribes. The Osage were unyielding in refusing to give up their lands and held up statehood for Oklahoma before signing an Allotment Act.

They were forced to accept allotment, but retained their "surplus" land after allotment to households, and apportioned it to individual members.

Each of the 2, registered Osage members in and one non-Osage received acres, nearly four times the amount of land usually acres that most Native American households were allotted in other places when communal lands were distributed.

In addition, the tribe retained communal mineral rights to what was below the surface. As development of resources occurred, members of the tribe received royalties according to their headrights, paid according to the amount of land they held.

In , the Osage Allotment Act was passed by U. Congress, as part of its effort to extinguish Native American tribal rights and structure, and to prepare the territories for statehood as Oklahoma.

In addition to breaking up communal land, the Act replaced tribal government with the Osage National Council, to which members were to be elected to conduct the tribe's political, business, and social affairs.

Although the Osage were encouraged to become settled farmers, their land was the poorest in the Indian Territory for agricultural purposes.

They survived by subsistence farming, later enhanced by stock raising. They discovered they were fortunate to have lands covered with the rich bluestem grass, which proved to be the best grazing in the entire country.

The Osage had learned about negotiating with the US government. Through the efforts of Principal Chief James Bigheart , in they reached a deal which enabled them to retain communal mineral rights on the reservation lands.

These were later found to have large quantities of crude oil , and tribal members benefited from royalty revenues from oil development and production.

The Commissioner of the Bureau of Indian Affairs called them "the richest people in the nation. They are the only tribe since the early 20th century within the state of Oklahoma to retain a federally recognized reservation.

In the Osage sued the federal government over its management of the trust assets, alleging that it had failed to pay tribal members appropriate royalties, and had not historically protected the land assets and appreciation.

In , the US federal government claimed to no longer recognize the legitimacy of a governing Osage National Council, which the people had created in , with a constitution that adopted some aspects of that of the United States.

It extinguished the power of tribal governments in order to enable the admission of the Indian Territory as part of the state of Oklahoma.

Under the Act, initially each Osage male had equal voting rights to elect members of the Council, and the principal and assistant principal chiefs.

Because the Osage owned their land, they negotiated under the Allotment Act to keep their communal land, above the then-common allotment which the government was making of acres per person.

They allocated this land as well, so that each of the 2, Osage members and one non-Indian on the tribal roll received acres.

Under the Allotment Act, only allottees and their descendants who held headrights could vote in the elections or run for office originally restricted to males.

The members voted by their headrights, which generated inequalities among the voters. A US district court decision ruled that the Osage could vote in a process to reinstate the Osage National Council as city members of the Osage nation, rather than being required to vote by headright.

But, this decision was reversed in with the United States Court of Appeals ruling that ended the government restoration. Federal Indian gaming law allows tribes to operate casinos only on trust land.

The Osage Nation's largest economic enterprise, Osage Casinos , [49] officially opened newly constructed casinos, hotels and convenience stores in Skiatook and Ponca City in December In the late 19th century, the Osage discovered oil on their reservation lands.

This resource generated great wealth through the s for people who held headrights. In large quantities of oil were discovered to lie beneath the vast prairie owned by the tribe, land which had been unsuitable for the subsistence farming urged by the federal government.

Because of his recent work in developing oil production in Kansas, Henry Foster, a petroleum developer, approached the Bureau of Indian Affairs BIA to request exclusive privileges to explore the Osage Reservation in Oklahoma for oil and natural gas.

Foster died shortly afterwards, and his brother, Edwin B. Foster, assumed his interests. Foster found large quantities of oil, and the Osages benefited greatly monetarily.

But this discovery of "black gold" eventually led to more hardships for tribal members. In preparation for statehood, the US government pressed the Osage to accept allotment and end tribal government.

Before having a vote within the tribe on the question of allotment, the Osage demanded that the government purge their tribal rolls of people who were not legally Osage.

The Indian agent had been adding names of persons who were not approved by the tribe, and the Osage submitted a list of more than persons to be investigated.

Because the government removed few of the fraudulent people, the Osage had to share their land and oil rights with people who did not belong. Because the Osage owned their land, they kept control of it all.

The government made the allocation of land extremely complicated, in a way that prevented most Osage from owning contiguous parcels.

This was intended to increase their incentive to sell or lease portions of land, and the takers were mostly whites. But, the Osage had negotiated keeping communal control of the mineral rights.

The headright could be inherited by legal heirs. This communal claim to mineral resources was due to expire in After that, individual landowners would control the mineral rights to their plots.

This provision heightened the pressure for those whites who were eager to gain control of Osage lands before the deadline.

Although the Osage Allotment Act protected the tribe's mineral rights for two decades, any adult "of a sound mind" could sell surface land.

In the time between and , Osage individuals sold or leased thousands of acres to non-Indians of formerly restricted land.

At the time, many Osage did not understand the value of such contracts, and often were taken advantage of by unscrupulous businessmen, con artists, and others trying to grab part of their wealth.

Non-Native Americans also tried to cash in on the new Osage wealth by marrying into families with headrights.

Alarmed about the way the Osage were using their wealth, in the US Congress passed a law requiring any Osage of half or more Indian ancestry to be appointed a guardian until proving "competency".

Minors with less than half Osage ancestry were required to have guardians appointed, even if their parents were living. This system was not administered by federal courts; rather, local courts appointed guardians from among white attorneys and businessmen.

Others were murdered, in cases the police generally failed to investigate. The coroner's office colluded by falsifying death certificates, for instance claiming suicides when people had been poisoned.

Consulting a wealth of sources, both Osage and otherwise—ethnographies, government documents, missionary records, traveler narratives—Edwards considers how the first century and a half of colonization affected Osage gender construction.

She shows how women and men built the Osage empire together. Once confronted with US settler colonialism, Osage men and women increasingly focused on hunting and trade to protect their culture, and their traditional social structures—including their system of gender complementarity—endured.

Gender in fact functioned to maintain societal order and served as a central site for experiencing, adapting to, and resisting the monumental change brought on by colonization.

Through the lens of gender, and by drawing on the insights of archaeology, ethnography, linguistics, and oral history, Osage Women and Empire presents a new, more nuanced picture of the critical role of men and women in the period when the Osage rose to power in the western Mississippi Valley and when that power later declined on their Kansas reservation.

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